Instrumentation & Automation
Application for Windows ⁄ Android
Dmitry Bebyakin,the metrologist, ILIM

IP code. Degrees of equipment protection.

The IP code is a codification system used to denote the degree of protection provided by the shell, from access to dangerous parts, the ingress of external solid objects, water, and the provision of additional information related to such protection.

Classification of the degrees of protection provided by the shells, the designations of these degrees of protection, the requirements for each designation, the methods and control modes, and the tests for checking the shells of electrical equipment, including instrumentation and automation to comply with this degree of protection is established in GOST 14254-96.

Composition of the IP code:

Code letters (International Protection)X
The first characteristic digit (numbers from 0 to 6 or the letter X)X
The second characteristic number (numbers from 0 to 8 or the letter X)X
Additional letter, if necessary (letter A, B, C, D)X
Auxiliary letter, if necessary (letter H, M, S, W)X

The first  characteristic figure indicates that the shell provides:
  - protecting people from access to dangerous parts, preventing or restricting the penetration of any part of the human body or object in the hands of a person;
  - while at the same time protecting equipment located inside the shell from penetration of external solid objects.
  The shell can be assigned a certain degree of protection, denoted by the first characteristic number, only if it corresponds simultaneously to all lower degrees of protection.

The second characteristic figure denotes the degree of protection provided by the enclosures with respect to the harmful effects on the equipment as a result of water penetration.
  Tests for the second characteristic figure are carried out using fresh water. The actual degree of protection can be unsatisfactory when high pressure and (or) solvents are used for cleaning operations.

An additional letter denotes the degree of protection of people from access to dangerous parts, are used only if:

Auxiliary letters indicate additional information.

All of the above is described in detail in GOST 14254-96, the following table is suitable for easier understanding:

Element of codeNumbers or letters of the IP codeMeaning for equipment protectionMeaning to protect people
First digitAgainst the penetration of external solid objects:Against access to hazardous parts:
0no protectionno protection
1diameter ≥ 50 mmback of hand
2diameter ≥ 12.5 mmfinger
3diameter ≥ 12.5 mminstrument
4diameter ≥ 1mmwire
The second digitAgainst harmful effects from water penetration
0no protection
1vertical dropping
2dropping (nominal angle 15 º)
4continuous spraying
6strong flowing
7temporary, short immersion
8prolonged immersion
Additional letter (if necessary)against access to hazardous parts
Aback of hand
Auxiliary letter (if necessary)Additional information pertaining to:
Hhigh-voltage devices
Mthe state of motion during the water protection test
Sthe state of immobility during water protection tests
Wrequirements for the resistance of shells established outside the GOST 14254-96